Soon after the Civil War, Atlanta boosters seized the opportunity to relocate the Georgia capital from Milledgeville. The city of Atlanta donated five acres for the neo-classical-renaissance revival building and the cornerstone was laid September 2, 1885.
Designed by Chicago architects Edbrooke and Burnham, the limestone landmark was completed in 1889. The building is landscaped with native Georgia flora including elms, oaks and magnolias, and the interior features Georgia marble.
In 1959, Lumpkin County donated the gold for the iconic dome. The gold was carried in by mule-drawn wagons and installed by six steeplejacks, though it has been regilded multiple times.